You may be surprised to learn that one in four US adults has a disability. Unavailable websites might have an effect on a startling 61 million individuals.
By making sure your site complies with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), you have the ability to change the world as a Drupal developer. In order to build websites that are accessible to all users, we’ll examine the essential features and best practices for testing WCAG 2.1 accessibility in Drupal in this article.
- What Is Accessibility (Ally)?
- WCAG And Its Origin
- Principles of WCAG
- Reasons To Comply With WCAG
- How Is WCAG 2.0/21 Successful?
- Screen Readers
- Three Levels of Accessibility
- Steps To Accessibility Test A Drupal Website
- How Drupal Helps Attain Accessibility Standards?
What Is Accessibility (Ally)?
Making a website as user-friendly as feasible, particularly for those with disabilities, is referred to as accessibility. What does the term A11y mean? Simply said, the term “Accessibility” is denoted by the abbreviation “A11y,” where “A” and “Y” are separated by 11 letters.
WCAG And Its Origin
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines are referred to as WCAG. It is regarded as the industry standard for website accessibility. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the WCAG criteria, which are the best and simplest way to make your website accessible to all users. The majority of government and healthcare companies strictly adhere to WCAG standards to make sure that the website complies with accessibility regulations (such as section 508).
Principles of WCAG
If you want to implement WCAG compliance, there are four main accessibility principles. These adhere to the term POUR—Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, and Robust—which stands for these four qualities.
Simply put, a user’s senses should be able to pick up on the content. This requires that they be able to identify the information being presented to them. It involves ensuring that audio content can be heard clearly and distinguished from background noise.
It all comes down to making sure users can easily navigate your website and that the user experience is intuitive. There must be no stages that users might be unable to complete or inaccessible areas of the website. When creating web content, you should stay away from flashing and quickly moving information. The website should be designed to be easily navigable without a keyboard, as well as keyboard accessible for users who are unable to use a mouse.
Users must be able to comprehend how to utilize and navigate the website as well as process the information that is offered to them. To ensure that pages display in a user-friendly and anticipated manner, this involves making the text clear, readable, and predictable.
This illustrates how technology could advance and how you could structure your website to take advantage of these advances. As a general guideline, the content should continue to be accessible as technology advances. It must also be straightforward to understand and accessible to a broad range of people with various disabilities. For instance, the website was upgraded to be compatible with the most recent screen readers.
Reasons To Comply With WCAG
Some of the benefits of using WCAG are listed below.
- An accessible website increases brand recognition and enhances search engine optimization. The position of your website in search engine rankings will improve.
- By successfully removing the obstacles that hinder a wide range of users from seeing your content, an accessible website promotes higher engagement, reach, and retention.
- Once WCAG is included on a website, it is regarded as standard.
How Is WCAG 2.0/21 Successful?
- On the website, each input field has a suitable label.
- Assistive technology can neglect decorative material because of how it is implemented. For instance, screen readers don’t pay attention to decorative images
- All taped audio and video content comes with captions.
- There is sign language interpretation for the audio content.
- a meaningful arrangement of the content, such as the headings on each page being arranged in a particular order.
- For automatically playing videos, the user has the option to pause, stop, or adjust the audio volume separately from the system volume.
- Text and small-scale images contrast at a ratio of 4.5:1, while large-scale text and images contrast at a ratio of 3:1. The contrast ratio does not apply to logos, brand names, or decorative content.
- No or very little background music. There is no background noise in the pre-recorded audio or video.
- The keyboard interface provides access to all of the content’s features. It won’t be a keyword trap.
- allowing readers adequate time to read and utilize the content
- The user may pause or change the time restriction if the content is time-based.
- The user will be given the choice to pause or halt any fast-moving content, such as auto carousels.
- After re-authenticating, the authenticated user will be able to continue the session without losing any data when it expires.
- The topic of the page will be described in the page titles, headings, and labels.
- The keyboard’s emphasis is clear and prominent.
- The focus will be applied to focusable components in a meaningful and practical order.
- The section heading for each section of the website is present.
- Unless they are purely aesthetic, all images have a purpose. Alternative text
- The keyboard and screen reader can access audio, video, forms, dropdown menus, anchor text, URLs, and alternative text.
- According to the page’s zoom level, the content clarity changes. Even at the highest zoom setting, the content is perfectly apparent.
- On every page of the website, the header and footer menu with assistance context should be accessible.
- The websites integrate hover and focus states correctly.
Screen readers and magnifiers are frequently used by people with vision impairments. Software known as a screen reader reads digital text seen on a screen out loud. Examples of screen readers include:
- Products that cost money, such as Dolphin Screen Reader and JAWS for Windows.
- Free software like Orca (Linux), NVDA (Windows), and ChromeVox (Chrome).
- Software included with the OS, such as ChromeVox (on Chrome OS), TalkBack (on Android), and VoiceOver (on Mac OS, iPad OS, and iOS).
Three Levels Of Accessibility
The three levels of success criteria for WCAG 2.1
- Level A: All 30 of the WCAG 2.0’s primary success criteria have been met. All websites should adhere to this standard at the very least.
- Level AA: All of the level A success requirements have been met, in addition to the additional 28 accessibility success criteria. This level achieves a wider accessibility spectrum and is frequently the objective for the majority of development teams.
- Level AAA: The website must meet all three degrees of success requirements, in addition to an additional 28 requirements. This level is often only accessible to special websites, like those run by governments.
The majority of WCAG-compliant websites generally meet level A or AA of the accessibility success criteria.
Accessibility Testing A Drupal Website
The steps to do an accessibility test for a Drupal website are as follows.
- Conduct a Google Chrome Lighthouse audit and address any accessibility issues found.
- Audit the Wave tools.
- Verify the keyboard highlight focus and the page’s tab order by hand.
- Use the necessary screen reader software to verify the page. For illustration, VoiceOver
- Verify the website’s usability across all resolutions, including those of broad desktops, laptops, tablets, and mobile devices.
- Use the W3C’s Markup and CSS validation tools to check the website’s code.
- Use a Chrome extension like Kontrast or a program like Color Contrast Analyzer to verify the website’s color contrast to ensure it complies with the requirements (4:5:1).
How Drupal Helps Attain Accessibility Standards?
To ensure that websites are usable and accessible to people with impairments, accessibility must be considered during web development. Drupal is well known for its unwavering commitment to accessibility. Look at the accessibility initiatives Drupal supports and the tools and features it offers to help websites be more user-friendly.
Including accessibility in Drupal
The development team at Drupal has always aimed to create a platform that can accommodate as many users as possible. When creating the core Drupal platform, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 Level AA standards were adhered to. This shows that Drupal websites may be accessed by people with a wide range of disabilities, including those affecting the visual, auditory, physical, verbal, cognitive, and neurological systems.
Default features for accessibility
The default themes for Drupal can be used by people who use mobile devices or assistive technology since they can adjust to different screen sizes and devices because of responsive design.
Screen readers and other assistive technology tools can better understand the structure of a website thanks to Drupal’s creation of semantic HTML markup.
Drupal has a feature for adding alternative text to images, making the website’s content easier to interpret for persons who are blind.
Drupal has keyboard navigation, which is essential for individuals without mouse capabilities.
Drupal creates accessible forms that are simple to use and navigate with assistive technology.
Drupal Offers Accessibility Plugins and modules
Drupal offers a selection of deployable accessibility modules and plugins to enhance the usability of a website. The following are a few popular accessibility modules and plugins:
The Editoria11y Accessibility Checker module analyzes a website for accessibility issues and offers suggestions for fixes.
The commonly used text editor for Drupal, CKEditor, is made more accessible with the help of this add-on.
unified accessibility Text size, contrast, and other accessibility-related settings for the website can all be changed by users using the accessibility widget included in this module.
This module’s A11Y: Form Helpers feature aids in ensuring that all Drupal webforms adhere to accessibility guidelines.
Block ARIA Landmark Roles: By introducing new components to the block configuration forms, this module enables users to provide a block either an ARIA landmark role or an ARIA label.
The Community Supports Accessibility Vividly
A significant portion of the Drupal community consists of programmers and designers who are dedicated to accessibility. The Drupal Accessibility Group is an initiative led by the community to increase Drupal’s accessibility for people with impairments. The group provides advice, resources, and best practices for creating Drupal websites that are ADA-compatible.
I hope that this post has given you the necessary understanding of WCAG 2.1 accessibility testing. Want to create a brand-new, fully accessible Drupal website or improve the accessibility of your current one? Appic Softwares, a leading Drupal development company would help [p you with all your Drupal requirements.
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